Archive for the ‘Al-Andalus’ Category

A reader named Viswanath replied to my previous post; I started writing a reply, but I realized it was far too long for that window. So here it is, below.

You’ve got something of a point regarding Aryabhatta, but the details as I can perceive them are pretty complicated (as ancient history is, and as far as this armchair historian can read them). Arayabhatta, an Indian living during the Gupta Dynasty, wrote the Aryabhatiya in 499 AD, as a treatise on arithmetic and astronomy, including algebra. (All these and other facts courtesy Wikipedia.) A lost third volume of this work could have been a translation of the Aryabhatiya, and is mentioned by an Indian writer in the 9th century AD, which is interestingly right about at the same time Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī, (considered the “father of algebra”), publishes The book of Summary Concerning Calculating by Transposition and Reduction in 820 AD. However the origins can also be traced back to the ancient Babylonians, who were working out algebraic methods of computation in the 1st millennium BC.

Two significant contributions were made by Greeks Hero of Alexandria, and Diophantus (2nd century AD), who may have gleaned something from mathematical information trickling back to the Greek world from Takshashila. Takshashila was an important center of Hindu and Buddhist learning from the 5th century BC to the 6th century AD, within the important Gandharan Kingdom.

Now here’s where it gets interesting. The westernmost reaches of the Gandharan Kingdom lie on the border of present-day Afghanistan – previously the ancient Persian Empire – subsequently the easternmost penetration of Alexander the Great’s empire. The Persians captured Babylon in the 6th century BC, and Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire in the 3rd century BC. A few centuries after Alexander, the Gandharan Empire entered its Graeco-Bactrian phase, and you can see the effects really plainly in the art of the period: sculptures clearly evincing Hindu, Persian and Greek influences simultaneously.

We recall that the origins of algebra come, in part, from the ancient Babylonians. Can you see where I’m going with this?

As with most scientific and engineering advancements in the course of human history, little bits are picked up here and there, added together, and flashed into Eureka! by pure chance, sometimes. (Two great general histories on this topic are The Day the Universe Changed and The Pinball Effect, both by James Burke.) Now, I don’t know a great deal about the history of mathematics, and this is just my theory, but it seems to me that by looking at the patterns of cultural communication, and the totality of the timeline, that the mathematical advances of algebra may well have grown outward from the Babylonian Empire, through the Persians, and flowed with Alexander’s armies into India, where it rested for a time. And then was communicated back through the Roman Empire in its greatest seat of learning, the Library of Alexandria. When Rome fell, Alexandria degraded. During the Middle Ages, the most profound nexus of knowledge and cultural transmission in Europe was Al-Andalus, where the act of translation between Jews, Christians, Greeks and Muslims kept water flowing in the Alhambra’s Generalife.

In other words, there was a basic fact of religious tolerance and civilizational organization throughout Islamic society at that time. To this, the West owes a great deal. Including algebra, where in its fullest and most systematic designs were delineated by Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī, at a time and place where knowledge – almost lost – could be sheltered. Acknowledging that was critical, in my view, toward establishing a dialogue toward creating more open Islamic societies. IMHO, Viswanath, it does not appear that Obama was “talking for glory,” and while your interest in reminding us of Indian contributions to the world’s scientific heritage is notable, as you can see through this analysis it can’t really fit very well into a speech that was already Obama’s longest.

Anyone who’s got a background in this area, I’d love to hear details, corrections or clarifications on this stuff.

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“It was Islam – at places like Al-Azhar University – that carried the light of learning through so many centuries, paving the way for Europe’s Renaissance and Enlightenment. It was innovation in  Muslim communities that developed the order of algebra; our magnetic compass and  tools of navigation; our mastery of pens and printing; our understanding of how disease  spreads and how it can be healed. Islamic culture has given us majestic arches and soaring spires; timeless poetry and cherished music; elegant calligraphy and places of peaceful contemplation. And throughout history, Islam has demonstrated through words and deeds the possibilities of religious tolerance and racial equality.”

At this early hour, I’m unable to find complete video of this historic address, but you can read the complete transcript at the superb cultural website 3QuarksDaily.com. For many years, Travel Dynamics International has operated elegant cruises to Spain and the northern coast of Africa under the precise principle outlined in Obama’s words above; if you’re interested, please take a look at our 2010 journey to Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt.

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Now at Travel Dynamics International, for remarkably discounted rates, you can:

Voyage into the classical world with antiquities experts from Antiques Roadshow. Enjoy an epic cruise down the entire Pacific coast of South America, from the Panama Canal to Ushuaia. Explore the lives of famous women of antiquity. Take a once-in-a-lifetime repositioning cruise from Morocco to Patagonia, following the route of Magellan. Continue in the footsteps of Sir Ernest Shackleton with Peter Hillary, son of the first man to ascend Everest. Cruise the Falklands and South Georgia in the far southern Atlantic en route to Cape Town, South Africa. Discover South America from the Amazon to Uruguay. Take an astounding voyage along the entire Atlantic coast of Africa. Sail from coastal Brazil into the depths of the Peruvian Amazon. Or perhaps the Orinoco and Amazon, with the beaches of Trinidad? Delve into the rich cultures of the Western Mediterranean from Seville to Venice. Circumnavigate Newfoundland. Or cruise up the entire Atlantic coast of North America, from Palm Beach to the Canadian maritimes? Listen to exquisite music, and enjoy top-chef Mediterranean cuisine, from Seville to Naples.

The epic journeys you’ve been waiting for, available now for less.

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One of our most exciting travel offerings this year is a late-December exploration of West Africa, beginning in legendary Casablanca, and concluding in Dakar, Senegal, on New Year’s Day 2009 — aboard the 114-guest, all-suite Corinthian II.

You can see the full itinerary here (and it’s really spectacular on its own) but we’d also like to introduce the two scholars who will be exploring this region with us, providing a lecture series en route. They are two Westerners teaching at Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane, Morocco, and their fields of interest are especially intriguing. One thing that makes TDI voyages unique is their ability to put you in touch with cutting-edge, up-to-the-minute research about the world in which we live. “Desert Kingdoms of West Africa” is a perfect example:


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detail of the AlhambraNewsweek reports:

‘One new trend has been to combine a luxury cruise with a pilgrimage. In March, Travel Dynamics International hosted a 12-day cruise to Spain and Morocco, titled “Coexistence of Cultures and Faiths.” Passengers attended lectures on the interaction of the three monotheistic faiths, led by a rabbi, a minister and an imam. “People came with their own religious identities,” says Feisal Abdul Rauf, one of the guest speakers. “But everyone was genuinely interested in how the relationship among faiths is a give-and-take.” They also explored Moroccan sites that revealed how the three religions collaborated to create a sophisticated 16th-century society. That’s the kind of pilgrimage the world could use more of these days.’

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